הדרך הקלה, המהירה והבטוחה ביותר להגשת טקסט אקדמי איכותי ומושלם!

טיפים לשוניים לשדרוג הטקסט האקדמי l דפנה גלייזר l עלי דפנה - עריכה לשונית ייעודית אקדמית

המילים האסורות בעולם הכתיבה האקדמית

אוצר המילים והביטויים המקובלים בלשון הדיבור, בכתיבה היומיומית, העיתונאית והספרותית שיש בו מילים וביטויים מעורפלים, מסורבלים, מוגזמים, מליציים ומתחכמים, סובייקטיביים וביטויי סלנג, אינו מתאים לכתיבה האקדמית.

סגנון הכתיבה האקדמית צריך להיות פשוט, תמציתי וענייני.

כמובן, כלל זה אינו חל על ציטוטים ישירים מהמקורות שהסטודנט משתמש בהם, ובכללם ציטוטים מראיונות.

במאמר זה אביא דוגמאות למילים וביטויים שאינם מתאימים לכתיבה אקדמית, ולידן אביא הצעות לתחליפים ראויים יותר.

1# מילים לא-פורמאליות

כתיבה אקדמית היא בדרך כלל יותר פורמאלית מכתיבה של טקסטים לא-אקדמיים וכמובן מלשון הדיבור.

למשל, השימוש בגוף שני (אתה/את/אתם/אתן) אינו מתאים בדרך כלל:
דוגמה: אתה יכול לראות את התוצאות בבירור.
תיקון: אפשר לראות בבירור את התוצאות.

2# מילים ממשלב נמוך

שימוש תדיר במילים פשוטות, במשלב נמוך, אינו מתאים לטקסט אקדמי. השתדלו להחליף במידת האפשר מילים פשוטות למילים ממשלב גבוה יותר, פחות יומיומיות, וכן להשתמש בכינויים חבורים (כגון מחקרו, תוצאותיו, מסקנותיה).

דוגמאות:

  • תוצאה רעה (משלב נמוך) – תוצאה שלילית (משלב גבוה).
  • מדגם גדול (משלב נמוך) – מדגם מקיף (משלב גבוה).
  • דוגמה טובה – דוגמה שימושית/ראשונית.
  • הפרק מראה – פרק זה מספק/מציע/מציג סקירה.
  • המחקר של – מחקרה של… (כינוי חבור).

3# מילים מעורפלות

שימוש במילים מעורפלות הופך את הטקסט לבלתי מדויק, לא ברור ונתון לפרשנויות שונות. נסו לנסח באופן מדויק וברור ככל האפשר.

לדוגמה:
הדו"ח מציג דברים רבים (מעורפל) – הדו"ח מציג פרטים/ממצאים/המלצות…

4# מילים ספרותיות ומגזימות

טקסט אקדמי נכתב לרוב בלשון לא ספרותית-פיוטית, לא מליצית ולא חגיגית, אלא כאמור בלשון פשוטה ועניינית. תוארי פועל כגון תמיד, לעולם ואף פעם; מילות שבח והפלגה כגון מושלם, הטוב ביותר והגרוע ביותר; מילות העצמה והגברה כגון מאוד, באמת ומדי, הן דרמטיות מדי לטקסט האקדמי, והן גם עשויות להיות בלתי מדויקות. נסו להשתמש במילים כאלה במידה מצומצמת.

דוגמאות:

  • שחרית וערבית (ביטוי מהלשון הספרותית) – עדיף: לעתים קרובות.
  • בִּמשורה (מליצית) – עדיף: במידה מצומצמת, במידה קטנה, במידה מועטה.
  • חוקרים טוענים תמיד כי (מילת הפלגה) – לעתים קרובות/בדרך כלל חוקרים טוענים כי…
  • הפתרון המושלם לבעיה – פתרון אידיאלי / מצוין / אחד הפתרונות הטובים ביותר לבעיה.
  • תיאוריה זו חשובה ביותר – תיאוריה זו חשובה/ביקורתית/מכרעת.

5# מילים סובייקטיביות

בחלקים רבים בטקסט האקדמי יש לציין עובדות ולא את הדעות והמחשבות שלכם. מילים כגון יפה, מכוער, נהדר, איומה, טובה ורעה חושפות את דעתכם, וזו מותרת רק בחלקים מסוימים בטקסט: בהקדמה, בתודות ובדיון.

דוגמאות:

  • סקירת הספרות כללה מאמרים טובים רבים – עדיף: סקירת הספרות כללה מאמרים רבים.
  • מטבע הדברים המשתתפים רצו לדעת… – המשתתפים רצו לדעת…
  • התוצאות מצביעות בבירור – התוצאות מצביעות על כך…

6# מילים וחזרות מיותרות

בכתיבה אקדמית יש לשאוף לכתיבה תמציתית ככל האפשר. יש להימנע מחזרות מיותרות, מהוספת מילים וביטויים חלולים שאינם מוסיפים משמעות.

דוגמאות:

  • המדידות נעשו על בסיס קבועעדיף: המדידות נעשו בקביעות.
  • השוטרים ניהלו חקירה בנושא – השוטרים חקרו את…
  • במהלך חודש ינואר נערכו 10 ראיונות – בינואר נערכו 10 ראיונות.

עוד על אופן תמצות הטקסט האקדמי אפשר לקרוא כאן בפוסט שכתבתי

7# בנוסף, באופן כללי כדאי גם לנסות להימנע משימוש במילים וביטויים ששייכים לקטגוריות האלה:

ז'רגון – אוצר המילים ששייך לתחום מדעי מסוים שעשוי להיות בלתי מובן עבור קוראים מתחומים אחרים.
קלישאות – ביטויים שנעשה בהם שימוש מופרז, כגון "לחשוב מחוץ לקופסה", "צצו כפטריות אחרי הגשם", "כרעם ביום בהיר", "יושב על הגדר".
קיצורים יומיומיים – כגון נשקים (במקום כלי נשק), רכבים (במקום כלי רכב).
סלנג – כגון מגניב, מסניף, חבל על הזמן, לסמס, צרפוקאים, יקה.

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